The Translation Of The Meanings Of Jami Tirmidhi (2 vol)
JAMI OF AT TIRMIDHI: (d.279/852) contains about 4000 hadiths. After each hadith he comments on its legal usage and the quality of its isnad. He has personal notes on almost every page which mention the degrees of authenticity of the hadith, the different versions of a single report, as well as the various currents of thought in practise in the Islamic world at this time. This makes his Jami (a collection which contains information on all subject matters) unique. Al-Jami` ut-Tirmidhi has been categorized as fifth amongst the six most authentic books of hadith. According to the most preferred opinion, Bukhari enjoys the highest status, followed by Muslim, Abu Dawood, Nasai, Tirmidhi and Ibn Majah respectively. Haji Khalifa in al-Kashf al-Dhunoon has categorised Tirmidhi in third position. Al-Dhahabi has written that Tirmidhi in actual fact should be holding the third position, but due to him bringing weak narrators like Kalbi and Masloob its status has dropped.
The Special characteristics of al-Jami` ut-Tirmidhi
1. It is a Sunan and a Jami`.
2. Less than 100 a hadith are repeated.
3. Imam Tirmidhi omits the major portion of the hadith and only mentions that part which is relevant to the heading. (title)
4. After mentioning a hadith he classifies it narration (whether it is authentic or weak, etc.)
5. He specifies the narrators names, e.g. if the narrators kunya (honorific name) was mentioned, he would then mention his proper name and vice versa.
6. One hadith in Tirmidhi is a thulaathiyaat i.e. the transmitters of the hadith between Imam Tirmidhi and the Prophet (s) are only three.
7. Every hadith in Tirmidhi al-Jami` is 'ma'mul bihi' (practiced upon by the jurists.)
8. He explains the different madhahib together with their proofs.
9. He gives an explanation to all difficult ahadith.
10. His book has been set out in an excellent sequence; hence to look for a hadith is very easy.
11. There is no fabricated hadith in the entire book. Imam Tirmidhi classifies most of the Ahadith and mentions its reliability. Altogether Imam Tirmidhi uses nine different terms.
1.) Sahih: That hadith wherein each reporter must be trustworthy, he must have the power of retention and the sanad of the hadith must go back to Nabi (sallallahu alyhi wasallam) without any interruption, it must agree with those of other reliable reporters and there should be no hidden defect in the matan or the sanad. N.B. Imam Tirmidhi does not consider it a prerequisite that a sahih Hadith must have several chains of narrators.
2.) Hasan: That hadith which does not contain a reporter accused of lying, it is not shaaz and the hadith has been reported through more than one sanad.
3.) Da`eef: Such a hadith wherein the narrators are not trustworthy, or they don't posses the ability of retaining, or there is a break in the chain of narrators, or the hadith is shaaz or mu'alall.
4.) Gharib: According to Imam Tirmidhi a hadith is classified gharib for one of the following reasons..
(a) It is narrated from one chain only.
(b) There is some addition in the text.
© It is narrated through various chains of transmitters but having within one of its chains an addition in the sanad.
5.) Hasan Gharib: These two can be combined. i.e. hasan refers to the uprighteousness of the narrators whilst gharib implies that he is alone in transmitting the hadith.
6.) Sahih Gharib: This term implies that the hadith is authentic but there is only one sanad.
7.) Hasan Sahih Gharib: This hadith is hasan since it has several chains of transmitters, it is sahih as the chains are all authentic and it is gharib in the words that Imam Tirmidhi narrated.
8.) Hasan Sahih: This term has caused much confusion amongst the Muhadditheen since hasan is lower in rank than sahih. While sahih indicates to the excellent retention power of a narrator, hasan indicates to a deficiency in this regard hence it seems that both are opposites and is not possible to reconcile. The mutaqaddimeen have given many explanations to this :
About Imam Tirmidhi --
Imam Muhammad ibn Easa, ibn Sawrah, ibn Musa Tirmidhi was born in the year 209 A.H. during the reign of the Abbasid Khalifa Ma'mun al-Rashid. Having grown up in an environment of learning, together with possessing many great qualities naturally drove Imam Tirmidhi to dedicate his life totally towards the field of Hadith. He obtained his basic knowledge at home and later travelled to far off lands in search of this great science.
He studied Hadith under great personalities such as Imam Bukhari, Imam Muslim and Imam Abu Dawud. In some narrations Imam Bukhari and Imam Muslim are his students as well. According to Ibn Taymiyya and Shah Waliullah, Imam Timidhi was an independent Jurist (Mujtahid). Moulana Anwar Shah Kashmiri is of the opinion that he was a Shafi`i.
He died In the year 279 A.H. in a village called Bawag at the age of 70 , Imam Tirmidhi (707) Sayyidina Abu hurayrah (RA) reported that the Prophet (SAW) said 'If a person does not give up false speech and deeds corresponding to it then Allah is in no need of his Giving up his food and his drink
Imam Tirmidhi said this Hadith is Hasan Sahih