The Period of the rightly guided Caliph vol 1
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The Sunni term 'the Four Rightly Guided Caliphs' was first used by the Abbasid Dynasty to refer to the four first political leaders after the Prophet's death. The question of political leadership had remained unanswered in Muhammed's teachings, with no provisions on who should fulfill this position or how a new leader should be appointed. The first initiative was taken by two of the most intimate companions of Muhammed, Abu Bakr and Umar, who became the first representatives of the Prophet, or caliphs.